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  • Writer's pictureT. Logan Metesh

Garand's Need for Speed

Updated: Jul 18, 2021

patent, Garand, rifle
Drawing for US Patent 1780521

In the waning days of 1928, John C. Garand filed a patent application for a "High Speed Firing Mechanism." At the same time, he was working diligently at Springfield Armory in Massachusetts, developing the rifle that would soon bear his name.

The patent, which was granted in November 1930 and assigned to the Lyman Gun Sight Corporation, was for a change in the firing pin and spring design for the M1903 bolt-action rifle.

Garand, patent, signature
Garand's signature on the patent

The firing pin was to be modified to accept a "relatively stiff spring" made of chrome-vandium wire that was to have a keystone shape when viewed from a cross-section. When the wire was wound into a spring, the coils would compress and change shape to a square because of the pressure exerted upon it. The now-square shape meant that each of the spring's coils would be in full and direct contact with one another.

Modifications to the firing pin included flattened sides for less contact friction with the bolt and less overall weight. This would result in a faster fall time of the firing pin, which would give the shooter less time to inadvertently move the rifle off target once the trigger was pulled.

Garand, Springfield Armory
Garand, hard at work at Springfield Armory

This is where Garand really got down into the minutiae of things.

He measured the average fall time of an unaltered M1903 to be 0.0057 seconds. His new design would reduce the fall time to 0.0022 seconds, which is a full 3.5 milliseconds faster. For reference, it takes the average person 0.0300 seconds to blink. That makes it highly unlikely - or, hell, I just go ahead and say it: impossible - for anyone to perceive the acceleration in firing speed from Garand's new design.

I think we're all lucky that Garand's design for a semi-automatic rifle took off. Otherwise, who knows what kind of other crazy stuff he might have come up with!

(Thanks to Corey Wardrop of the Institute of Military Technology for bringing this patent to my attention.)

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